EBC 123: Unit 5



WHO recommends that;
 One should do at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity
 Physical activity of amount greater than 60 minutes daily will provide additional health
 Should include activities that strengthen muscles and bones, at least 3 times per week.
 Physical activity for health address 3 three age groups; 5-17 years old, 18-64 years old,
65 years and above.
 Physical activity performance should consider specific medical conditions.

The frequency, intensity and duration of physical activity depend on one’s age, fitness level and the desire to participate.
One must check his heart rate and blood pressure to know whether he is fit to perform
physical activity. One should be aware of his height and weight also.
Your height and weight can cause limitations in performing certain physical activities.

Components of fitness are allied to one’s health and skill performance.
Components of fitness include muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance (Aerobic endurance), Balance, flexibility speed, body composition etc.
Muscular Strength
This is the ability or capacity of muscles to overcome a given load or do a particular work with a single contraction. The ability to lift heavy things depicts strength in the muscle. Strength depends upon the maximal force that a group of muscle can develop to perform particular exercise in a specified time.

Muscular Endurance
Muscular endurance is the capacity of a group of muscles to sustain the performance of a particular task over a period of time or to perform task repetitively. Endurance is determined by the number of repetitions a particular duty is performed before fatigue sets in.

This is the ability of the body to obtain equilibrium during performance of physical activities.
Balance can be classified into two forms namely static balance and dynamic balance. Static
balance is the ability of the body to hold itself at a stationery position for some time while
Dynamic balance is the ability of the body to hold oneself while moving. This can also be improved with constant practice such as standing on one foot, walking on a beam.
This is the range of motion through which a joint can move. A person is said to be more flexible when his joint are able to move over a wider range than another person. Flexibility is determined by the possible rotations within a joint. Flexibility is measured with a flexi meter and is developed through stretching exercises.

Aerobic Endurance (cardiovascular endurance)
This is the ability of an individual’s system to process oxygen for the supply of energy to do muscular work over a long period of time. This includes the combined functioning of the heart, lungs and the blood vessels. An individual who has good cardiovascular endurance can run long distances at a rapid speed or can dance for a long time; exhibit a slower heart rate and quickly recovers after participating in strenuous exercises. Long distance runners such as marathoners possess a lot of cardiovascular endurance.

Practice of Safety/Protective Procedure in Physical Activity setting.
 Undertake a proper warm- up before the main activity.
 Do not place equipment within the working area.
 Equipment as well as human beings should be well spaced to avoid overcrowding and
 Educate students on how to handle and use equipment and apparatus.
 Clear working area of dangerous materials such as stones and broken bottles and also
avoid slippery and wet grounds.
 Give simple and correct instructions. Adequate description of all activities should be
given before students are asked to perform.
 Caution students to use protective devices.
 When activity is new or has high risk, use demonstration or other suitable methods and also provide support where necessary.
 Students with special problems should be identified and take necessary measures.
 Prevent students from using equipment and apparatus when they have not been instructed to do so.

Practice in First Aid in Sports and Physical Activity and Dance setting.
First Aid refers to the immediate help given to an injured person to help him survive from the time of injury till the time he/she is handed over to a medical officer.
Some basic things to do

The first aider must check the ABC’S.

A= Airway. Check if the airway is blocked by something like the tongue; if its blocked, open it for passage of air.

B= Breathing. Check to see if the casualty is breathing by looking at the chest, listen to any sound of breathing and feel for breathing.

C= Circulation. Check the pulse by feeling the arteries or by putting your hand on the left side of the chest to feel the heart beat
The presence of these symptoms means that the casualty is alive.
Get the casualty’s history.
With this, you must use what has been acronym SAMPLE to get the history;
S= Signs and Symptoms. What you can observe about the casualty (signs) or ask the casualty (if
conscious) how he/she feels.

A= Allergies. Find out if the casualty is allergic to something.
M= Medication. Find out if the casualty is taking any drug or has taking any drug.
P= Previous problem. Ask the casualty if he/she had similar problems before.
L= Last food or drink taken. Ask the casualty the last food he/she has taken.
E= Event .Ask the casualty what happened or what led to the current situation.

Basic treatment to offer.
Put casualty in a recovery position.

General Principles to be followed;
REST: Place casualty at a comfortable position, either sitting or lying position depending on the nature of injury. Allow the casualty to rest.
WARMTH: The casualty should be given as much warmth as possible. The victim should however be put in an airy environment. Crowding around the victim should be avoided.
FLUID: The first aider should not give any fluid to the casualty unless is very sure that there will be no surgery within the next hours.
REASSURANCE: The first aid provider should give the victim enough assurance of safety through his words and action.
ORGANISATION: The first aid provider should organized available resources (human and materials) to save the situation.

Steps in the care of soft tissue injuries:
Use the RICE technique;
R- REST: The injured area should be immobilized. Rest the part.
I – ICE: Ice or cold can be applied either directly or indirectly to the skin. If applied directly, the source of the cold application should be kept in motion, as in light circular motion.
C –COMPRESSION: Compression is usually done by wrapping with sterile bandages or tape or by direct manual pressure.
E –ELEVATION: Elevation means placing the injured part above the level of the heart as in the injured leg propped up on a support while the person is lying down.

Treatment of Dislocation or Fracture.
Put the affected part in a splint or triangular bandage or scarf to immobilize the part. Send the casualty to hospital.

Treatment of wounds.
 Clean the outside of the wound (from the edge of the wound outwards)
 Clean the inside of the wound removing all particles.
 Put pomade or powder containing sulphamide or antibiotics into the wound.
 Cut gauze and cover the wound. The covering should exceed the wound slightly.
 Add cotton wool and then another layer of gauze.
 Plaster but it should not cover the entire wound in order to allow fresh air inside for quick healing.
 Seek medical help if wound is very deep and very serious.

Management of Hemorrhage (bleeding-External).
 Place casualty in a suitable position.
 Elevate the bleeding part except there is fracture.
 Expose the wound by removing clothes around the area of the injury.
 Do not disturb any clot already formed.
 Remove any foreign body.
 Apply and maintain direct and indirect pressure (locate the artery or vein involved).
 Apply dressing pad and bandage or plaster.
 Immobilize the injured part if necessary.
 Send the victim to hospital if it is severe Internal bleeding.
 Rush victim to the hospital.
 Do not give anything through the mouth.

Practice of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
CPR is a lifesaving technique. It aims to keep blood and oxygen flowing through the body when a person’s heart and breathing have stopped.
It involves external chest compressions and rescue breathing procedure.
The procedure is acronym CAB; that’s Compression, Airway and Breathing offer 100-120 per minutes breakdown to 30 chest compressions and 2 mouth breaths. The procedure involves chest compression, clear Airway and put mouth on the victim and breathes into him/her. Repeat and ensure the victim’s recovery.


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