EBS 316: Topic 2: Instructional Objectives

UNIT 2: INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

 

Unit Outline

Session One: Instructional objectives

Session Two: Domains of instructional objectives in ICT

Session Three: Aims and objectives for teaching Primary/JHS ICT

 

Dear student, this unit presents information on how best the technological knowledge can be used to enhance teaching. The unit is divided into sessions. Each session is further divided into sub-sessions for easy reading and comprehension of concepts.

 

Unit Objectives

By the end of this unit, the students should be able to:

Define instructional objectives

State the reasons why instructional objectives are important

Classify instructional objectives

Provide examples of instructional objectives

Describe the three domains of instructional objectives

State any four aims and objectives in Primary ICT

State any four aims and objectives in JHS ICT

 

WEEK FOUR (SESSION 1, 2 AND 3)

SESSION 1: INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

 

In education, both goals and objectives can be defined as statements that reflect what learners will be able to do at the end of an instructional sequence; however, there are significant differences between the two. A goal is an abstract and general umbrella statement, under which specific objectives can be clustered. Goals are overall end result you want the students to accomplish after the instruction. Goals are general statements of intent. Objectives are explicit and measureable performances the students must accomplish in order to reach the goal. Objectives are statements that describe in precise, measurable, and obtainable terms defined and desired learner outcomes.

 

Objectives

By the end of this session, you will be able to:

  1. Define instructional objectives
  2. State the reasons why instructional objectives are important
  3. Classify instructional objectives
  4. Provide examples of instructional objectives

1.1 Definition of instructional objectives

 

Instructional objectives are important in all aspects of teaching and learning. Instructional objective is a statement that will describe what the learner will be able to do after completing the instruction. Instructional objectives are specific, measurable, short-term, observable student behaviors. They indicate the desirable knowledge, skills, or attitudes to be gained. It provides a genre for choosing subject matter content, sequencing topics and for allocating teaching time. They also guide in the selection of materials and procedures to be employed in the actual teaching process. Further they provide standards as well as criteria for evaluating the quality and efficiency of teaching and learning activities.

 

Why are instructional objectives important?

Instructional objectives are guides to:

1.Selection of content sequencing topics allocating teaching time

2.Development of an instructional strategy.

3.Development and selection of instructional materials.

4.Construction of tests and other instruments for assessing and then evaluating student learning outcomes.

 

 

Steps to writing objectives

 

For each objective, answer the following three questions:

  • What do you want to accomplish?
  • How are you going to accomplish it? (What steps will you take to accomplish your

objective? What activities will you do? How will you acquire the learning? Under what

conditions will the learning occur?)

  • How you will measure your objective? (What evidence will you have to demonstrate that

learning has taken place? What criteria will be used to evaluate your evidence? Who

will do the evaluation?)

 

Checklist for writing objectives

 

  1. i) Written in terms of students’ performance?
  2. ii) Observable by one or more of the five senses?

iii) Specific?

  1. iv) Valid and reliable to the major objectives and goals of the course?
  2. v) Measurable in terms of level of performance and conditions under which performance takes place?
  3. vi) Sequential in relation to prior and subsequent knowledge?

vii) Relevant to the students’ experiences

viii) Attainable within the time period you have allotted for it?

  1. ix) Challenging to each student?
  2. x) Acceptable to society?
  3. xi) Realistic?

xii) Having a stem: At the end of a given period (lesson, course, module) the learner should be able to:

 

 

1.2 SMART objectives

 

  • Specific- Concrete, tangible evidence of improvements; targeting specific groups of students
  • Measurable- Multiple measures; focus our efforts on what gets measured;
  • Attainable- Goals that motivate us to strive higher; almost but not quite within reach; we address goals through data conversations
  • Results-based- Motivating, concrete benchmarks against which to measure our efforts; not process goals
  • Time-bound- Builds internal accountability and commitment—a specific time frame

 

How to create Specific, Measurable, Relevant, and Time-framed objectives

 

It’s helpful to start with the phrase “By the end of this lesson the student will be able to….” and finish the sentence.

  • Add an observable action verb that describes what the student should be able to do (see table on next slide for examples of action verbs).
  • Avoid difficult to define verbs that are open to a variety of interpretations (e.g., understand, learn, grasp); use instead terms that describe directly observable behaviors.
  • When necessary, specify criteria concerning expected standard of performance (e.g., “Design a plan for students, including supplies and equipment needed, time estimates, and a description of the activities.”

 

How to create Specific, Measurable, Relevant, and Time-framed objectives

  • It’s helpful to start with the phrase “By the end of this lesson the student will be able to….” and finish the sentence.
  • Add an observable action verb that describes what the student should be able to do (see table on next slide for examples of action verbs).
  • Avoid difficult to define verbs that are open to a variety of interpretations (e.g., understand, learn, grasp); use instead terms that describe directly observable behaviors.
  • When necessary, specify criteria concerning expected standard of performance (e.g., “Design a plan for students, including supplies and equipment needed, time estimates, and a description of the activities.”

 

Self-Assessment Questions

Exercise 2.1

  1. What are instructional objectives?
  2. Give any three examples of instructional objectives in ICT.

 

 

SESSION 2: DETERMINING THE DOMAIN OF A INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVE

 

Domain- A specification that shows the elements and interrelationships of teaching and learning.

 

There are 3 domains:

  • Cognitive- Mental skills

– Involves knowledge and development of intellectual skills.

– Critical thinking and cognitive processes progress in the levels of complexity the further

you go up.

  • Affective- Attitudinal skills

– Deals with the manner in which learners deal with emotions, such as feeling values, appreciation, motivation and attitudes.

  • Psychomotor- Physical skills

– Includes physical movement, co-ordination and use of motor skills.

– The development of these skills requires practice, speed, precision, procedures and techniques to perform.

Objectives

By the end of this session, you will be able to:

  1. Describe instructional objectives under cognitive domain.
  2. Explain instructional objectives under affective domain.
  3. State at least five examples of instructional objectives in ICT under psychomotor domain.

 

Cognitive Domain

 

  • The cognitive domain involves knowledge and development of intellectual skills.
  • It includes recall of facts patterns and concepts.
  • It has six major categories

 

Bloom’s Taxonomy

 

  • Knowledge (recall, identify, recognize, acquire, distinguish)
  • Comprehension (translate, extrapolate, convert, interpret, abstract, transform)
  • Application (apply, sequence, carry out, solve, prepare, operate, generalize, plan, repair, explain)
  • Analysis (analyze, estimate, compare, observe, detect, classify, discover, discriminate, identify, explore, distinguish, catalog, investigate, breakdown, order, recognize, determine)
  • Synthesis (write, plan, integrate, formulate, propose, specify, produce, organize, theorize, design, build, systematize)
  • Evaluation (evaluate, verify, assess, test, judge, rank, measure, appraise, select, check)

 

Bloom’s revised Taxonomy

 

  • Knowledge- Recalling or restating facts
  • Understanding- Ability to create own meaning from new learning
  • Applying- Using the new knowledge in a familiar or different context
  • Analyzing- Breaking the new knowledge down into discrete parts and identifying how the parts relate to the whole.
  • Evaluating- Making judgments and critiquing
  • Creating- Putting pieces together to form something new

Why the changes?

 

  1. Knowledge is a product of thinking, not a category of thinking in itself. So it was changed to Remembering.
  2. The taxonomy changed from nouns to actionable verbs.
  3. Comprehension changed to Understanding.
  4. Synthesis changed to Creating because creative thinking is a more complex skill than critical thinking (synthesis) and therefore, not only did the word change but where it is located on the taxonomy.

Older Bloom was more applicable toward younger audiences (elementary) but the New Blooms accommodates a more comprehensive audience.

 

Activity

 

For each question, indicate the level of Bloom’s taxonomy.

 

  1. What events led to the troubleshooting the computer?
  2. What is the definition of input devices?
  3. Who created Microsoft?
  4. What is an example of a storage device?
  5. What is the difference between input and output devices?
  6. What changes would you make to the Core ICT curriculum? Why?
  7. Do you believe that constructivism is the best learning theory to apply to ICT teaching? Defend your position.
  8. Design a software for SHS to teach geometry to Form one students.
  9. Explain why ICT plays an important role in society.

 

Affective Domain

 

  • This domain deals with the manner in which learners deal with emotions, such as feeling values, appreciation, motivation and attitudes.
  • It has five major categories
    • Receiving (asks)
    • Responding (helps)
    • Valuing (demonstrates)
    • Organization (adheres)
    • Internalizing (performs)

 

Receiving Stimuli

Listening to others with respect; listening to new knowledge. Examples: replies, selects, names, follows, describes, identify, points to, asks, and chooses

 

Responding to Stimuli

Active participation; willingness to respond and satisfaction in responding (motivation).

Examples: Answers, aids, assists, complies, conforms, presents, read, write, labels, helps, performs, practices

 

Valuing

The worth or value one assigns to the stimuli. Even though they are internalized, they are overtly identifiable. Willing to be involved. Examples:  Differentiates, demonstrates, completes, justifies, reads, proposes, shares, selects, initiates, follows.

 

 

Organizing

Willing to support and be an advocate. Prioritizing values, comparing and contrasting values; managing conflict and creating resolutions based upon these values and the priorities ascribe to each. Examples: Compare, contrast, organize, adhere, resolve, prepares, relate,

 

Internalizing

A value system established that controls behavior; it is consistent and pervasive. Work well with others and independently, self-advocacy   practiced. Willing to change behavior for good and revise judgment when new insight comes into play.

Examples: Influences, acts, discriminates, proposes, questions, revises, re/solves

 

Psychomotor Domain

 

  • The domain includes physical movement, co-ordination and use of motor skills.
  • The development of these skills requires practice, speed, precision, procedures and techniques to perform.
  • It has five categories.
    • Naturalization
    • Articulation
    • Precision
    • Manipulation
    • Imitation

 

Naturalization-mastering skill to automaticity. Examples: design, develop, create

Articulation– combining, producing, and performing several skills consistently. Examples: adapt, construct, generate, create, modify, teach, solve, combine, co-ordinate

Precision– performing a skill independently without assistance. Examples: demonstrate, master, perfect, complete, control, show

Manipulation– performing by memory or following instructions. Examples: act, execute, produce, perform, implement

Imitation– mimicking and observing behavior. Examples: copy, follow, mimic, reproduce, replicate, trace

 

Self-Assessment Questions

Exercise 2.2

  1. State any five examples of instructional objectives of ICT under cognitive domain.
  2. Give any three examples of instructional objectives of ICT under affective domain.
  3. State any two examples of instructional objectives of ICT under psychomotor domain.

 

SESSION 3: GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF ICT TEACHING SYLLABUS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS/JHS

 

Objectives

By the end of this session, you will be able to:

  1. State the general aims of ICT teaching syllabus for primary school/JHS.
  2. State at least five general and specific objectives of ICT teaching syllabus for primary school .
  3. State at least five general and specific objectives of ICT teaching syllabus for JHS.

3.1 General Aims (Primary Schools)/JHS

 

The syllabus is designed to help pupils to:

  1. acquire   basic   ICT   literacy
  2. communicate   effectively   using   ICT   tools
  3. develop  interest  and  acquire  skills  in  the  use    of  the  internet
  4. develop  basic  ethics  in  using    ICT  tools
  5. acquire  basic  mouse  and  keyboarding  skills

3.2 General and specific objectives (Primary Schools)

 

Read

TEACHING SYLLABUS FOR INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (PRIMARY 1 – 6)

 

3.3 General and specific objectives (JHS)

 

Read

TEACHING SYLLABUS FOR INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (JHS 1 – 3)

 Self-Assessment Questions

Exercise 2.3

  1. What are the five general aims of ICT teaching syllabus for both primary school and JHS?
  2. State at least five general and specific objectives of ICT teaching syllabus for primary school.
  3. State at least five general and specific objectives of ICT teaching syllabus for JHS.

Attachments1

SEE ALL Add a note
YOU
Add your Comment
 

Top Rated Course

Course Reviews

Welcome To.

KOMENCO LMS


The official komenco LMS where you learn at the comfort of your home.
Learn more

Subscribe From

top
Orbit I.T Training and Services Ltd © 2019. All rights reserved.
Skip to toolbar