- Instructional design can be defined as “the systematic process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and activities (Wulfrek and Ellis, 1983).
- According to Albion et al., instructional design can be defined as a
- Science, or
Instructional Design as a Process
- It is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction.
- It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities and try-out and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
Instructional Design as a Discipline
ID is that branch of knowledge concerned with
- Research and theory about instructional
- Strategies and the process for developing and
- Implementing those strategies.
Instructional Design as a Science
ID is the science of creating detailed specifications
for the development, implementation, evaluation
and maintenance of situations that facilitate the
learning of both large and small units of subject
matter at levels of complexity.
Instructional Design as Reality
- ID can start at any point in the design process. Often a glimmer of an idea is developed to give the core of an instruction situation.
- By the time the entire process is done the designer looks back and she or he checks so that all parts of the ‘science’ have been taken into account. Then the entire process is written up as if it occurred in a systematic fashion.
Steps in Instructional Design
- There are six basic steps in Instructional Design:
1.Analyze your learners and the learning context.
2.Define your learning outcomes (knowledge-attitudes-skills).
3.Structure the learning content.
4.Select the learning materials or resources.
5.Design the learning activities.
6.Determine the modes of assessment.
- In performing each step, an instructional designer seeks to answer the following basic questions:
1)Who are our learners? What do they already know and how do they learn best?
2) What do we want our learners to learn? Why?
3) How do we structure the learning to achieve our learning objectives?
4) What learning resources are appropriate, effective, and available?
5) What strategies will we use to ensure that effective learning takes place?
What combination of activities will enable the learners to achieve the
6) How do we know whether the learners are learning/have learned what
they are supposed to learn? How do we assess learning?
- A systematic process of Instructional Design enables an educator to:
1.Identify the performance problem
2.Determine the goals and objectives
3.Define your learners and their needs
4.Develop strategies to meet needs and goals
5.Assess learning outcomes
6.Evaluate if goals, objectives and needs are met
Characteristics of Instructional Design
According to Branch and Merrill (2002), there are characteristics that should be present in all instructional design models:
1.Instructional design is learner centered: Learner and his/her performance are the focal point.
- Instructional design is goal oriented: Well defined goals are essential.
- Instructional design focuses on real world performance. Help learners perform the behaviors that will be expected of them in the real world.4.Instructional design focuses on outcomes that can be measured in a reliable and valid way. Creating valid and reliable measurement instrument is essential.5.Instructional design is empirical. Data are the heart of the process.6.Instructional design typically is a team effort. This process usually involves team work.
A Useful Model for Designing Instructional Materials is the ADDIE MODEL
- The ADDIE model is used by instructional designers and training developers. It is composed of five phases
- Implementation, and
- This model attempts to save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix.
ADDIE Model : A = Analysis