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EBS 262 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING IN BASIC SCHOOLS1( 1 REVIEWS )395 STUDENTS
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- EBS 262 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING IN BASIC SCHOOLS
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NYARKOH CHRISTIANEBC 126- COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Amanda Achana Pinjo 200043287
Dear student well done for completing Unit 1. You are welcome to Unit 2 in this Unit you will learn much about teaching. You are to read the learning outcome and indicators below
By the end of the course the student would be able to:
CLO 2: Describe the role of the teacher in the teaching and learning process.
(NTS 2a, 2b, 2c, 2e. 2f, p. 13; 3e-3o, p.4)
The student will be able to:
Dear Student teacher answer the questions below
· Who is a teacher?
· Discuss any five qualities of a good teacher. Refer to the content below.
2.1 Who is a Teacher?
2.2 Some Qualities of a Good Teacher
· You are to brainstorm the meaning of Teaching. Compare your answer with the information below.
2.3 What is Teaching?
Teaching is a term which can be used:
(a) Loosely as in a situation in which a mother teaches her daughter to prepare soup; or a village carpenter teaches an apprentice to make a chair, and
(b) Officially as in school situation where a professional teacher trains pupils to read and write. In this Unit institutionalized teaching will be dealt with.
Institutionalized teaching has two aspects: (a) formal teaching and (b) informal teaching.
With formal teaching the teacher takes full control of the class and decides on what to teach and the methods to use. He may decide to use the class or lecture method, whole class discussion or brainstorming technique.
Informal teaching is the approach in which the teacher is more of facilitator of learning rather than a director of it. The teacher organizes teaching in such a way that learners are brought in contact with the learning material and left to interact with the learning materials themselves in the way they please. The teacher only acts as a guide, a counselor and a motivator. The learning activity may be guided by the setting of problems. In this case, the problems may be set by both the teacher and the learners. Informal teaching is not as structured as it is with formal teaching. The structure in informal teaching is flexible and loose.
Teaching can further be explained as an activity of imparting knowledge, skills, attitude and values to learners. It involves creating situations to facilitate learning and motivating learners to have interest in what is being transmitted to them. Teaching, thus does not occur without a supposed learner. In a restricted sense, teaching is the role related to the behaviour of those individuals who occupy the position of “teacher”.
· How would you explain teaching as an art or a science. The content below will help you to understand it better.
2.4 Teaching as a Science and an Art?
2.4 Teaching: As An Art or a Science?
This question is used to be popular in the past. It is like asking whether teachers are born or trained?
It was realized that some people taught naturally and effectively as if they had been trained to teach. Again, some pupil teachers in Health Training Institutions, Primary Schools, and Junior High Schools in Ghana have been known to be effective in their teaching. Teaching as an art depends on the individual teacher and his personality.
Furthermore, the art of teaching has been undertaken by people of different walks of life and various organizations from ancient times to the present. Some of the people included Socrates, Plato, Aristotle the Scribes and the Prophets. It also included the various religious organizations like Taoism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. These organization were exemplified by their leaders, notably among whom were Confucius, Zoroaster, Gautama (the Buddha), Jesus Christ and Mohammed.
Other teachers of great repute included Herbart, Rousseau, Comenius, Pestalozzi, John Locke, Montessori and John Dewey.
Modern Teaching should, however, be considered as a science more than as an art. Modern teaching does not leave things to chance as in the case of teaching as an art. Teaching as a Science has a body of systematized knowledge on Teaching Methodology, Human development and Human Learning or Educational Psychology. Such knowledge is derived from scientific investigations and in certain cases is built into models and theories. Researchers try out different teaching methods to find out their effectiveness for recommendation for classroom teachers. In this way effectiveness for recommendation for classroom teachers. In this way effectiveness of teaching is not left to chance as in the case of “teaching as an art”.
· State and describe any two teaching competencies
2.5 Teaching Competencies
What are Teaching competencies?
Competencies are the skills and knowledge that enable a teacher to be successful. To maximize student learning, teachers must have expertise in a wide-ranging array of competencies in an especially complex environment where hundreds of critical decisions are required each day (Jackson, 1990). Few jobs demand the integration of professional judgment and the proficient use of evidence-based competencies as does teaching.
Which competencies make the biggest difference?
An examination of the research on education practices that make a difference shows that four classes of competencies yield the greatest results.
Further, the research indicates that these competencies can be used to organize the numerous specific skills and knowledge available for building effective teacher development.
The hallmarks of an explicit approach for teachers are as follows Teacher selects the learning areas to be taught.
Classroom management is one of the most persistent areas of concern voiced by school administrators, the public, and teachers. Research consistently places classroom management among the top five issues that affect student achievement.
A good body of research highlights four important areas that classroom teachers should be proficient in to create a climate that maximizes learning and induces a positive mood and tone.
These skills must be defined as clear behaviors that teachers can master for use in classrooms.
Indispensable soft skills include:
· State and explain ant five roles of the teacher in the teaching and learning process.
2.6 Roles of the Teacher in the Teaching and Learning Process
It is clear that the 21st-century classroom needs are very different from the 20th-century ones. In the 21st century classroom, teachers are facilitators of student learning and creators of productive classroom environments, in which students can develop the skills they might need at present or in future.
Most teachers take on a variety of roles within the classroom. The primary role of a teacher is to deliver classroom instruction that helps students learn. To accomplish this, teachers must prepare effective lessons, grade student work and offer feedback, manage classroom materials, productively navigate the curriculum, and collaborate with other staff.
Below are some roles of the teacher:
In this classroom, the teacher is mostly the center of focus, the teacher may have the gift of instruction, and can inspire through their own knowledge and expertise, but, does this role really allow for enough student talk time? Is it really enjoyable for the learners? There is also a perception that this role could have a lack of variety in its activities.
When learners are literally ‘lost for words’, the prompter can encourage by discreetly nudging students. Students can sometimes lose the thread or become unsure how to proceed; the prompter in this regard can prompt but always in a supportive way.
As a resource the teacher can guide learners to use available resources such as the internet, for themselves, it certainly isn’t necessary to spoon-feed learners, as this might have the downside of making learners reliant on the teacher.
There are a variety of ways the teacher can grade learners, the role of an assessor gives teachers an opportunity to correct learners. However, if it is not communicated with sensitivity and support it could prove counter-productive to a student’s self-esteem and confidence in learning the target knowledge or skill.
Again, as an assessor, the teacher does not merely evaluate the success of students to achieve the goals in the teaching and learning process, but also becomes an evaluation for the success of the teacher in the implementation of teaching and learning process
The organizer can also serve as a demonstrator, this role also allows a teacher to get involved and engaged with learners. The teacher also serves to open and neatly close activities and also give content feedback.
Here the teacher can enliven a class; if a teacher is able to stand back and not become the center of attention, it can be a great way to interact with learners without being too overpowering.
This role can be a great way to pay individual attention to a student. It can also allow a teacher to tailor make a course to fit specific student needs. However, it can also lead to a student becoming too dependent or even too comfortable with one teacher and one method or style of teaching.
2.7 Phases of Teaching
Teaching is a complex task. For performing this task, a systematic planning is needed. Teaching is to be considered in terms of various steps and the different steps constituting the process are called the phases of teaching.
The teaching can be divided into three phases: Each phase has some operations of teaching which create the situation for learning.
The three phases/stages involved in the teaching process are
THE PRE-ACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING:-
Operation of teaching at pre-active phase:-
Before classroom teaching, a teacher has to perform many tasks. This phase includes all these activities which a teacher performs before entering the classroom. This stage involves the following activities.
(1) The formulation or fixing up of goal:-
(2) Selection of content or subject matter to be taught:-
(3) The arrangement of ideas and style of teaching:-
After selecting the presentable content, the teacher arranges the elements of the content in a logical and psychological sequence. Sequencing should be able to assist in the transfer of learning.
(4) Selecting Instructional Methodology:-
The teacher has to select appropriate strategies and tactics of teaching, keeping in view, of the content and objectives of teaching. This operation is very important in teacher-education programme.
(5) Development of teaching strategies:-
The teacher should decide beforehand about strategies and techniques, which he has to use during the course of his classroom teaching. He should decide about
(6) Deciding the duration, place, and management of classroom teaching.
(7) A decision about evaluation tools and techniques.
So, this stage is about working out the details of the teaching or activities a teacher want to perform in the class. Here, teacher hypothesizes about the possible outcome of his action.
THE INTERACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING:-
This phase refers to the execution of the plan made during the pre-active phase. This is actual classroom teaching. In this phase, the teacher gives students the learning experiences through some suitable modes.
In this phase, teachers give learners a pre-determined environment. The teacher interacts with students so that desired changes can be brought in the learner.
So learning is directed in pre-determined directions to achieve pre-determined goals. In this process, the teacher provides learners with verbal stimulation. This stimulation can be of various kinds. Few examples are:-
Operations of teaching at interactive phase:-
This phase of teaching
In this face to face encounter with learners. Here the teacher uses some of the techniques, aids, and material planned in the first phase. This helps the teacher in achieving the relevant objectives that were already set. Here the following operations are undertaken by the teacher.
(1) Setting up the class:-
It refers to the activity of perceiving the due size of the class, getting the feel of the mood of learners. here teacher should be aware of