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EBS 262 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING IN BASIC SCHOOLS1( 1 REVIEWS )395 STUDENTS
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- EBS 262 GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF TEACHING IN BASIC SCHOOLS
1Sir please there is not content on this course. And no PDF as well..
ANYETEI ANGELEYEBC 126- COMMUNICATION SKILLS
MICHAEL AGGREYEBC 126- COMMUNICATION SKILLS
ABAKAH MONICAEBS 278: INTEGRATED SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT
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NYARKOH CHRISTIANEBC 126- COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Amanda Achana Pinjo 200043287
It is the immediate care given to an injured or suddenly ill person before seeking proper medical care / attention. It includes the things that people can do for themselves to save bad situations.
Aims of First Aid
A first-aid kit is a bag, case or a box containing basic medical supplies that are designed to be used on someone who is injured or who suddenly becomes ill. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) sets a standard for first aid kits of being green, with a white cross, in order to make them easily recognizable to anyone requiring first aid.
The common kits used in the school may contain: Alcohol or non-alcohol antiseptic wipes, band- aids, cotton balls Iodine, bandages, hydrogen peroxide, gauze, Saline, dressings ,eyewash antiseptic solution, Ice pack, blade, pair of scissors, etc
Function of Items in First aid Kit
Some Conditions That Calls for First Aid
It is the escape / loss / flow of blood from a damaged blood vessels
Hemorrhage – large amount of bleeding in a short time or a heavy release of blood within or from the body.
External bleeding –seen blood coming from an open wound (outside the body)
– often overestimated
Internal bleeding – inside the body
– often underestimated
There are 3 kinds of external bleeding according to the blood vessel that is damaged:
Bleeding – clinical symptoms
What to do?
(Brachial or femoral points)
What to look for?
What to do?
Nose injuries – nosebleeds
– anterior – most common (90%)
– posterior – serious and requires medical attention
What to do?
It is a circulatory system failure when insufficient amount of blood is provided for different parts of body.
– extracellular fluids (vomit, diarrhoea, sweating, urine…)
What to look for?
What to do?
nausea + vomiting
🡻 inhaling foreign material into the lungs
🡻complications during surgery
Bruises (suffusions) = a form of internal bleeding, but not life threatening
Open wounds – types
Open wounds – What to do?
Let hospital emergency department personnel to do the cleaning
– wash inside the wound with soap and water
– irrigate the wound with water from a faucet (tap)
– for a wound with a high risk for infection (animal bite, very dirty or ragged wound or a puncture) seek medical attention for wound cleaning
Open wounds – Amputations
– it does not need to be cleaned
– wrap it with a dry sterile gauze or clean cloth and put it in the plastic bag
– keep it cool, but do not freeze
Open wounds – impaled objects
What to do
Burns and Scalds
Rank among the most serious and painful injuries.
Can be classified –
characteristics – redness, mild swelling, tenderness and pain
characteristics – blistering and swelling, severe pain
characteristics – no pain, skin looks waxy or pearly grey or charred
What To Do
Burns and scalds – what to do in case of 1st and small 2nd-degree burns
Aim of the care – reduce pain
– protect against infection
– prevent evaporation
Burns and scalds – what not to do
Burns and scalds – what to do in case of large 2nd and 3rd-degree burns
Chemical burns – what to do
Immediately remove chemical by flushing the area with water – brush dry powder chemicals from the skin before flushing (water may activate a dry chemical) – protectyourself
Chemical burns – what not to do
– closed fractures – skin is intact
– open fractures – skin over the fracture is damaged or broken
What to look for: D-O-T-S
What to do
– the most frequently affected are shoulders, elbows, fingers, hips, knees and ankles
Signs and symptoms
What to do?
Most often causes –
Evaluation of vital functions – examine ABCs followed by
History is ofprimary importance, but at altered mental status may be difficult
Obtain as much information as possible from the patient, from the family and from anyone else who was at the scene.
The most important questions
Besides vital functions are regularly examined, observe:
Don’t give any fluids and do not provoke the vomiting in people with altered state of consciousness.
Specific poisonings antidotes:
How to practice first Aid
The most common term referred to in first aid is ABC. This stands for airway, breathing, and circulation.
.As soon as ABC has been secured, the first aider can then focus on any additional treatments. The ABC process must be carried out in that order. However, there are times when a first aider might be performing two steps at the same time. This might be the case when providing rescue breathing and chest compressions to an individual who is not breathing and has no pulse.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
Breaking down these words helps to provide a description of the procedure:
-Cardio means heart.
-Pulmonary means lungs.
-Resuscitation means to restore to life.
Therefore, cardiopulmonary resuscitation is bringing the heart and lungs ‘’ back to life’
CPR is a procedure involving repeated cycles of compression of the chest and artificial respiration performed to maintain blood circulation and breathing for a person who has stopped breathing (respiratory arrest) and/ or whose heart has stopped (cardiac arrest).The signs of cardiac arrest are unconsciousness, no reactivity, absence of normal breathing
Permanent brain damage or death can occur within minutes if blood flow stops. Therefore, it is very important that blood flow and breathing be continued until trained medical help arrives.
Purpose of CPR
It is to restore and maintain oxygen rich blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs if the heart or lungs stop working on their own.
Indication of CPR
First Aid Sequence Of CPR
.Make sure the scene is safe. The victim should be flat on his back and his mouth should be checked for debris. Then tap the person on the shoulder and shout “Are you OK?” to ensure that the person needs help.
. If it’s evident that the person needs help,
call or ask a bystander to call 112,
begin administering assistance.
Open the airway.
With the person lying on his or her back,
tilt the head back slightly to lift the chin.
Check for breathing. Listen carefully, for no more than 10 seconds, for sounds of breathing. (Occasional gasping sounds do not equate to breathing.) If there is no breathing begin CPR
Place your hands, one on top of the other, in the middle of the chest. Use your body weight to help you administer compressions that are at least 2 inches deep and delivered at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute.
Note: If the chest does not rise with the initial rescue breath, re-tilt the head before delivering the second breath. If the chest doesn’t rise with the second breath, the person may be choking. After each subsequent set of 30 chest compressions, and before attempting breaths, look for an object and, if seen, remove it.
Continue CPR steps. Keep performing cycles of chest compressions and breathing until the person exhibits signs of life, such as breathing, or a trained medical responder arrives on scene
Summary of CPR First aid Sequence
Unconscious victim → Shout for help → Open airway → Check breathing → Chest compressions → Rescue breaths
ASSIGNMENT : ASSIGNMENT 4 MARKS : 15 DURATION : 1 week, 3 days