UNIT 5: This Unit consists of the following sub-topics: 5.1 Teaching Aids and Types 5.2 Importance of Teaching Aids. 5.3 Principles for the selection of Teaching Aids 5.4 Guidelines for the Effective Use of Teaching Aids 5.5 Computer Simulation 5.6 Improvisation



Dear student welcome to Unit 5. This unit is about Teaching Devices.


  • State the different types of teaching support materials
  • Describe the importance of resources for teaching Science
  • Explain the principles for the selection of teaching aids
  • Explain the guidelines for effective use of teaching aids.
  • Describe how to improvise three materials for teaching Science

Activity 1:

  1. What are teaching aids?
  2. (i) Explain any two(2) main types of teaching aids

(ii) Give two(2) examples of each of the types mentioned

5.1  Teaching Aids and Types

Teaching aids are objects or devices used by a teacher to enhance classroom instruction and promote active participation of learners during teaching and learning activities to achieve learning outcomes.

Objects such as textbooks, pictures, maps and other display materials are teaching aids. Also devices like computers, smart phone DVD, films are used in the classroom as teaching aids.

Four main Types of Teaching Aids

(i)       Visual Aids: Helps the learner to acquire knowledge through his or her visual senses. They are aids that are looked at (appeal to eye sight). Examples include charts, silent motion pictures, projected displays, filmstrips, models, graphs, diagrams, chalk boards, marker boards, magnetic boards, flannel boards, etc.

(ii)      Audio Aids: They help the learner to acquire knowledge through his auditory senses. They are aids that are listened to (appeal to the ear and hearing). Examples include tape recorded lesson, radio, teaching machine, broadcast talks, etc.

(iii)     Audio-Visual Aids: These are aids that are both looked at and listened to in order to see and hear at the same time. They are sensory aids that help to make teaching effective, interesting and concrete. Audio visual aids provide the learner an opportunity to utilize both his or her auditory and visual senses to gain the desired knowledge and learning experience. Examples include videos, sound motion films, television, living objects like a bird, etc.

(iv)     Activity Aids: They are a combination of all the teaching aids that are necessary to enable the learner to engage in a specified useful activity. Examples include:

  1. a. Field trips/excursions and visits b.   Exhibitions and fairs
  2. c. Experimentation in the laboratory/wor

Activity 2:

  1. Describe any five (5) importance of Science Teaching Aids.

5.2 Importance of Teaching Aids.

  1. They create a visual and interactive experience for learners during classroom instruction.
  2. They engage the students thereby promoting their understanding of the topic being taught.
  3. They help in illustrating or reinforcing a skill or concept.
  4. They motivate and relieve learners of anxiety and boredom by providing information in a new and exciting way.
  5. They promote faster learning in students
  6. They discourage leaners from the habit of cramming.
  7. They make the classroom active. The element of fascination whilst learning with teaching aids encourages greater student participation.
  8. They enable a large number of students to be taught at the same time even if the teacher is standing far away from one of the students.
  9. They enable the teacher to win the interest and attention of the learners
  10. They make the subject matter clear.
  11. When used properly, teaching aides develop in the learner, the desired attitudes of a scientist and also trains them in the use of the scientific method.
  12. They enable student to learn through first-hand experience as they look at demonstrations involving concrete objects.
  13. Teaching aids make use of the five senses.

Activity 3:

  1. Explain any five (5) principles for the selection of Science Teaching Aids

5.3 Principles for the selection of Teaching Aids

The aid should be relevant to the topic being taught.

  1. It should be suitable to the topic and make it interesting.
  2. It should motivate and have some specific educational values.
  3. The aid to be used should be simple and easy to manipulate.
  4. It should suit the physical, social and cultural environment of the learners.
  5. It should be suitable for collaborative learning.
  6. It should be appropriate in ensuring the achievement of standards and the learning goals given in the curriculum framework
  7. The aid should be the best possible substitute in terms of reality, accuracy and truthful representation of the object or the first hand experience.
  8. It should be accessible, visible and introduce learners to knowledge and skills that prepare them for the real world.

Activity 4:

  1. Discuss any four(4) guidelines for effective use of Teaching Aids

5.4 Guidelines for the Effective Use of Teaching Aids

  1. The teaching aid should be linked to the classroom teaching and used purposely to supplement oral and written work in class.
  2. Ensure that the teaching aid is in conformity with the intellectual level of the class and fits the learners’ previous experience.
  1. Use the aid so that it stimulates greater thinking, creativity and activity in the learners.
  2. Preferably use actual specimen exactly, accurately and practically in real terms if available.
  3. Make sure that you are skillful in the handling and manipulation of the teaching aid.
  4. The teaching aid used should be related closely to the learners experiences.
  5. Plan well so that the teaching aid is used exactly at the point in the teaching and learning process where the conceptual purpose for its use is best manifested.
  6. You should evaluate the use, function and the effect of the teaching aid used in the learning process from time to time.

Activity 5:

  1. What is computer simulation?

5.5 Computer Simulation

Computer simulation is the process of mathematical modelling, performed on a computer, which is designed to predict the behavior of or the outcome of a real – world of physical systems. In this case the physical system in being simulated.

Simulation of a system is the running of the system model. Consequently, one should build a model first before running that model as simulation. Computer simulation is useful because it enables one to explore and gain insight into new technology and to estimate the performance of systems.

Computer simulation serves as a “Substitute Laboratory”. For example, in the various branches of science, they can be used to provide teaching and training experiences that would not be practicable using conventional methods on grounds of cost, time, safety etc.

Examples include the use of computer simulation to provide learners insight into systems such as nuclear reactors and experiments in genetics.

Activity 6:

  1. (i) What is improvisation?

(ii) State and explain the main types of improvisation

(iii) Give two (2) examples each of the types of improvisation.

5.6 Improvisation

It is the use of low cost/no cost readily available materials in the locality to make equipment/objects/apparatus and  use these for teaching and learning in the absence of the original equipment/objects/apparatus.

Improvised materials are a replica of the original equipment and apparatus made with low cost or no cost readily available materials in the local environments.

5.6.1 Improvised material are of three types

  1. Improvisation by substitution:

This means using improvised materials in place of real or original materials.

For example, using a lighted candle as a bunsen burner; using lime juice as acid.

  1. Improvisation by modification:

That is when some changes are done to the locally available material before it can be used to represent the original one.

For example, cutting a plastic bottle into two and using the bottom half as a beaker and top half as a funnel.

  1. Improvisation by construction:

That is when the locally available materials are used to make a model of the original object in teaching.

Activity 7:

  1. Describe how to improvise two materials for teaching Science

5.6.2 Teaching Aids that can be improvised

a . Charts and Wall Charts

Charts refer to displays on a large piece of manila card or cloth that are designed to be shown to a class or a group in the course of a lesson.

Wall charts are similar to charts except that they are pinned to a wall of the classroom or on a bulletin board and are meant for casual study of the context of a formal lesson.

Even though charts and wall charts are available commercially, it is still often necessary to make one’s own in a specific way.

  1. Mobiles: These are three-dimensional wall charts in which the individual components can move about. Instead of displaying a related system of pictures, words, sketches etc. on the surface of a wall chart, they are drawn on card, cut out and hung independently from a beam or a ceiling using fine threads. In this way the cut-out materials are seen without a paper background.
  2. Models: these are three-dimension representation of real things or abstract system. Models are useful in three specific roles being: i) as visual support materials in mass instruction ii) as objects for study or manipulation in individualized learning  iii) as project work to be constructed by individuals, small groups or even an entire class.

Models can be applied in several ways in the teaching and learning process.

  • They can be used to reduce the sizes of very large objects (a planet) and enlarge very small objects (an atom) to a size that can conveniently be observed and handled.
  • They can be used to demonstrate movement.
  • They can be used to represent a highly complex situation or process in a simplified way that can easily be understood by students.

Activity 8:

  1. State and explain any four (4) importance of improvisation in Teaching and learning of Science.

5.6.3 Improvisation is important in the teaching and learning process because;

  1. It demystifies science
  2. It makes the learning of science interesting.
  3. It enables students to learn through first-hand experience.
  4. It introduces students to the world of work.
  5. It fosters cooperation and collaboration among learners.

Activity 9:

  1. Discuss any four(4) factors you will consider when making improvised materials for teaching and learning Science.

5.6.4 Factors to consider when making improvised materials include

  1. The age and intellectual ability of the learners that will use it.
  2. Safety in using the improvised materials.
  3. Availability of the basic materials in the locality.
  4. The assistance of local craftsman such as carpenters, welders, electricians.





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