UNIT FOUR : Inter-disciplinary connections iii – Rite – de – Passage / Life Span. UNIT FIVE:Traditional Aerobic Musical Genres I and Physical Fitness Concepts, Principles and Strategies.


TITLE OF LESSON: inter-disciplinary connections iii – Rite – de – Passage / Life Span.

LESSON DESCRIPTION: – This chapter of the course is to guide student teachers to identify and document indigenous songs and physical activities that have inter – disciplinary connections to history, geography, rite-de-passage (life cycle / span), festivals etc. in Ghana.

STARTER, PRIOR LEARNING (ASSUMED): – Student teachers have already been introduced sole and mixed – sex songs. They have also been singing indigenous games songs and participating in physical activities during the previous lesson. Student teachers have participated in performance of indigenous songs with physical activities in their various communities.

POSSIBLE BARRIER TO THE LEARNING IN THE LESSON: – Movements (Dancing to some songs [music]) in the new lesson as well as sight disabilities.


  1.   Independent study etc.


Zoom Discussion:

  • On indigenous songs.
  • Types of indigenous songs (Lang. 1 or 2, ethnicity)
  • Philosophy in the songs and their functions.
  • Physical activities that are employed during the performance of the indigenous songs.
  • The inter-disciplinary connections about the indigenous.

Repertoire Building: – Compilation of the songs and their corresponding physical activities in accordance with the categories of songs specified.


The purpose of this chapter is to:

  • Build or create a PORTFOLIO of indigenous song and their physical activities.
  • Categorize the songs collected into inter-disciplinary connections such as History, Geography (origination in the country), Rite-De-Passage – life cycle – (From birth to death), festivals etc. in Ghana.
  • Detailed information about the songs should be known by students and also, they have to acquire skills to perform the songs.
  • The student teachers should be able to talk about and participate effectively in the physical educational activities related to each indigenous music or dance.

LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THE LESSON: – Exploration of the relationship between Physical Education and Music and Dance and other disciplines like Mathematics, Science, Arts etc.

Ask student teachers to explore the relations between Physical Education and Music and Dance.

LEARNING INDICATORS FOR THE OUTCOME: – Through song or music and physical activities and dance, student teachers should recognize and demonstrate understanding of the inter- connections between Physical Education and Music and Dance and Life cycle or span (History, Geography). In this area, student teachers should know some historic background of some of the indigenous songs in the Life-de-passage and their geographical areas in the country. For example, game songs, lullabies, funeral songs, war songs, festival songs as well as songs for marriages and puberty rites.

Life-de-Passage refers to the stages in life from birth to the grave; thus naming ceremony, puberty rites, marriage ceremony, funeral rites, and in each of such stages, there are musical performances as well as the physical activities (dancing) that go on. Also, we can talk about other occasions like festivals, durbar of chiefs and other installation and destoolment of chiefs and other social activities which go with musical and physical activities.


Rite-de-passage is a French phrase meaning rite of passage which simply means rituals or ceremonies signifying events in a person’s life which indicate the transition from one stage to another. Thus, starts from:             Birth – (Naming ceremony)

Puberty rites – (Bragoro-Akans, Dipo-Krobos)

Marriage ceremonies

Death – funeral rites



And in each stage, there are musical performances that go with it. For example, for naming ceremony, any beautiful or adoring music could be played or performed for the family and friends around to enjoy ‘Boborbor, Kpanlogo, Bosoe’ etc.

Puberty rites: – It is a stage that ushers the girl-child from childhood to adulthood. At this stage the girl-child is taken through some rituals for a week by an elderly woman in the house or the community (Akan). In the Akan community it is known as ‘Bragoro’ and Krobo people call it ‘Dipo’- Youtube for video.

Marriage Ceremony: – This is a ceremony on which a girl-child after taken through the puberty rites is given in hand to a man for marriage. This is a stage or period after which a woman is allowed or accepted to reproduce or give birth.

Funeral rites: – Funeral rite is ritual-base activity performed when a relative or a person dies. In actual sense, it is believed that though any person can die regardless of one’s age, yet it is believed that elderly persons die and it is the last stage of the Life cycle or Rite-de-passage. The reason for the Life cycle is that our ancestors believe that there is life after death. Also, they believe in re-incarnation, hence the celebration of funeral rites.

Assess level of physical fitness to improve health and performance.

Human body parts

  • Muscular system
  • Skeletal system
  • Joints

The Muscle

It is a body tissue made up of fibres that are capable of contracting to produce motion or apply force. It has the power to shorten or lengthen by simulation.

  • Contraction of Muscle is responsible for movement at the joints and movement of some internal organs
  • Muscle fibres are held together by connecting shealths which join together at the end to form Tendons which anchor the muscle to bone.
  • Muscles are attached by the tendons to bones on either side of a joint.

The Skeleton

It is a system of bones and other supporting materials such as cartilage and ligaments.

  • The skeleton aids movement by providing anchorage for muscles.
  • The skeleton like a framework of a building gives support to the body.
  • It gives protection to some important an delicate organs



Joints are meeting point of bones – where one bone ends, another begins.

Physical Fitness

We must develop the components to improve our fitness level.






TITLE OF LESSON: Traditional Aerobic Musical Genres I and Physical Fitness Concepts, Principles and Strategies.

LESSON DESCRIPTION: This lesson has the purpose of introducing student teachers to three vigorous intensity aerobic dances (i.e. Bↄbↄↄbↄ, Kpanlogo and Agbadza) and help them to analyze the movement patterns involved the three (3) traditional dances. You will understand and apply the physical concepts, principles and strategies to improve their health and performance.

STARTER, PRIOR LEARNING (ASSUMED): – Student teachers have already been introduced sole and mixed – sex songs. They have also been singing indigenous games songs and participating in physical activities during the previous lesson. They have also been participating or watching the performance of indigenous songs with physical activities in their various communities.

POSSIBLE BARRIER TO THE LEARNING IN THE LESSON: Movement and sight challenges may be the possible barriers to the learning of this lesson.

LESSON DELIVERY – CHOSEN TO SUPPORT TO STUDENT TEACHERS IN ACHIEVING THE LEARNING OUTCOME: – E-learning opportunities and individual or independent studies.


  • Analysis of movement pattern.
  • Creative Dance Composition.
  • Zoom class discussion.
  • Project-based and enquiry-based pedagogical strategies.


  • To explore the three vigorous intensity aerobic dances (i.e. Bↄbↄↄbↄ, Kpanlogo and Agbadza).
  • To describe the key components of the indigenous genre, including ethnicity (historic background).
  • Instrumental setup, social organization – performance practice repertoires, other materials (costume etc.), occasions for the performances.
  • Analysis of the movement patterns associated with the dances.
  • Related physical fitness and health promotion of the dances.
  • Introduction of project and enquiry-based pedagogical strategies,
  • To help student teachers to evaluate heart beat to target hear-rate zone above resting heartbeat.


  • Demonstrating physical activities and performance of Ghanaian traditional musical genres at varying intensities.

NTS 2e $ 2f, NTECF pg 23, 29, Appendix 1,2,3.

  • Demonstrating knowledge of physical (activities) fitness concepts, principles and strategies to improve health and performance – NaCCA-PE, B1.4.1.4.


  • Student teachers will be able to perform vigorous intensity activities such as Bↄbↄↄbↄ, Kpanlogo and Agbadza to elevate heartbeat (to target heart rate zone above resting heartbeat).
  • They should be able to participate in enjoyable physical activities for increasing period of time – NaCCA-PE, B1.4.1.4.
  • They should recognize the need to drink water during and after the physical activities – NaCCA-PE, B1.43.43.

ASSIGNMENT: – Briefly describe the “Bↄbↄↄbↄ” ensemble, consider the following points when writing: The historical background, instrumental setup, performance practice and occasions for performance.


BBↃↃB is an ensemble or dance type performed in the Volta region of Ghana by the Ewes. It is meant for the youth and founded by a man called Kojo Kuatror from Kpando in the Volta region. Bↄbↄↄbↄ is a recreational dance which was limited to the Ewe speaking people of the Northern Volta. But due to the migration of the people, the ensemble has spread to other places like the Anlo Ewes and even across the borders to Togoland, the neigbour country.

Bↄbↄↄbↄ was formed during the regime of Osagefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah the 1st President of Ghana, so he adopted the ensemble to be performed at campaign grounds as well as Independent celebration and other social gathering.

INSTRUMENTAL SETUP: –  Asiuvi, bugle, pati, vuvi (small drum), vuga (master drum), castanets. As time went on, konga, donno and tambourine were included whilst pati was eliminated.

PERFORMANCE PRACTICE: – The performance is normally commenced with a series of unaccompanied songs to prepare the dancers into full action. The dancers form some cues with some rhythmic patterns played by the Vuga (the master drum) followed by the dancers singing and moving forward with a sequenced re-arrangement which change with the song simultaneously by the lead singer. They normally hold two handkerchiefs and roll them when they are performing. The dancing is mostly done by the female counterparts while the males take charge of the drums.

OCCASIONS FOR PERFORMANCE: – It is performed at any social gathering, during festivals, funerals and others.

ABGADZA: – This is a dance type mostly performed by the Southern Ewe communities in Ghana. It was said to have derived from an old war dance called Atrikpui. It was started as a predominantly male dance but now it is performed by both male and female counterparts.

INSTRUMENTAL SETUP: – Kidi, Kagan, Sog (the masther drum), Gakogui (double bell) and Axatse (rattle).

PERFORMANCE PRACTICE: – Agbadza performance practice is similar to that of Atsiagbekor. In this performance, singers stand behind the drummers in a horse-shoe formation. In the course of introduction, one may find elements of free style singing as the other dancers are cued in by the master drummer. Dancing is normally done in pairs, the male and female – opposite sexes.

OCCASIONS FOR PERFORMANCE: – Agbadza is performed during festivals, funerals, durbar of chiefs as well as installation of chiefs.

COSTUME: – no specific costume is prescribed for the performance of Agbadza, but men wear shorts (togas and a cap on), cloth tied around the waist with a cow – tail (whisk in their hands), while the females put on any decent slit and kaba.

KPANLOGO: – History has it that Kpanlogo ensemble is found among the Ga people of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. It is similar to Kolomashie and Gome ensembles, and it is believed to have been brought from Fenando Po in 1962. It is believed that, Toro dance influenced the development of Kpanlogo. It was brought by a fisherman called Lincoln to Accra. The ensemble is very popular among the youth of Ga communities. It is a social dance so it is seen at all social gathering, and it is a recreational dance.

INSTRUMENTAL SETUP: – The instruments used for the performance of Kpanlogo ensemble include: Ngongo (bell), castenets, rattle and some small drums which are usually held in hands when playing and flame drum (Tamalane).

PERFORMANCE PRACTICE: – Kpanlogo dancing is done in pairs by the opposite sexes and their dressing or costume depict street boys and girls or men and women and it is casual.

OCCASIONS FOR PERFORMANCE: – Kpanlogo is performed during outdooring (kpodziemo), puberty rites, marriages, durbar of chiefs, funerals and other social occasions. It is purely a recreational dance which is performed for entertainment.


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