Unit 3 Outline

Definition and Implications

Approaches to Curriculum Implementation:

Fidelity approach

Mutual adaptation

Curriculum enactment

Factors affecting Implementation


Definitions and Implications of Curriculum  Implementation

Implementation is an interaction between those who have created the programme and those who are charged to deliver it.

It requires teachers  to shift from the current programme which they are familiar with to the new or modified programme (Ornstein & Hunkins, 1998).

It involves changes in the: ◦knowledge,

◦actions and

◦attitudes of people.

Implementation is a process of clarification whereby individuals and groups come to understand and practice a change in attitude and behaviour; often involving the use of new resources.

Implementation involves change which requires effort and will produce a certain amount of anxiety. To minimize these, it is useful to: ◦organise implementation into manageable events and to ◦set achievable goals.

Implementation requires a supportive atmosphere in which there is trust and open communication between administrators, teachers, educators, and where risk-taking is encouraged.

Approaches to Curriculum Implementation

Fidelity approach

Mutual adaptation and

Curriculum enactment

Fidelity Approach Aims at determining the degree of implementation of an innovation in terms of:

◦the extent to which actual use of the innovation corresponds to intended or planned use and ◦factors which facilitate and inhibit such implementation as planned.

Here, it is assumed that the desired outcome of curricular change is ‘conformity to the original plan’.

Assumptions Underlying the Fidelity Approach

  1. Curriculum knowledge is primarily created outside the classroom by the experts who design and develop the curriculum innovation/change.
  2. Change is conceived of as a linear process, with teachers implementing the innovation as developed in the classroom.
  3. Implementation is successful when the teachers carry out the curriculum change as directed.
  • If implementers carry out the plan as intended then the curriculum change itself can be fairly evaluated. •If not then change can not be fairly evaluated because it was never really implemented.

Mutual Adaptation

This approach allows users to adapt or alter the innovation/change to meet their own needs.

It is the process whereby adjustments in a curriculum are made by curriculum developers and those who actually use it in the school or classroom context.

Implication – Negotiation and flexibility on the part of both the designer and practitioner.

This means that negotiation and flexibility

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