UNIT SIX – CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES

This unit seeks to introduce the student teachers to classroom management techniques. That is to expose student teachers to the various classroom management skills to make them effective, deficient and confident in the classroom environment ( physical and social environments

IMPORTANCE OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

WHAT MANAGERS AND TEACHERS DO?

To understand why the teacher is a manager we need to know what managers do and how the work of a class teacher is related to the work of a manager.

Kreimer and Kinick (1992) define management as the process or working with and through other to achieve organizational objectives in an efficient manner (p.12)

1. “Process” means doing or reaching something beginning from somewhere and ends at somewhere. Both managers and teachers do this kind of routine.

2. “Working” with and through “other” managers don’t work alone. He works through other people such as production staff, administrative staff, marketing staff, finance etc. if the class teachers work through several pupils. These responsibilities like class captain cupboard monitors etc.

 3.  “An organizational objective” as an expression refers to what the place, business or organization want to achieve by going through a routine process with other people.

 4. “Efficient manner”: This is the quality the process or means of reaching the objectives or goals it could either be easy or difficult, simple or complex, less costly or expensive. Also it must ensure maximum use of available resources.

 MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS VERSUS TEACHING FUNCTIONS

Traditionally, a manager is expected to perform five main functions namely: Planning, Budgeting, Organizing, Controlling and Problem Solving.

  1. Planning: the manager is expected to work out the ways and means by which the stated objectives can be achieved. A teacher plans on paper before he/she meets the class.
  2. Budgeting: every manager is expected to have an idea about the cost involved in reaching an objective. Also teachers must bear the cost of the physical and human resources he might need to achieve the objectives.
  3. Organizing: managers do arrange, assemble and use the physical and human resources he might need to achieve the objectives. In the same way teachers are expected to arrange and assemble all physical and human resources to achieve the objectives.
  • Arranging the order of the activities that will be carried out during teaching and learning
  • Selecting the amount of task to be performed within as set period, and grouping, whether pupils will perform the task as individuals, in pairs, in small groups or as a whole class.
  1. Controlling: the manager is expected to look at and direct all activities in such a way the objectives are reached in an efficient manner, and monitoring. Teachers also have to direct the teaching-learning process from the beginning to the end, monitor and organize the entire process until the objectives are attained.
  2. Problem Solving: problems are bound to crop up in every human institution, managers have the skills in meeting the peculiar problems and needs of the people he/she work with or through them, in the classrooms, the teacher performs these functions by solving the learning and social problems of the pupils e.g. conflict between two or more students.

MANAGING PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASS

  1. Very good
  2. Good
  3. Below average.

This is done mainly to allow each group of learner proceed at his own pace of learning.

  • Informal class group: it is usually formed by the pupils themselves to meet their personal needs and desires, e.g. playmates club etc.

 MANAGING PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASS

  1. WHAT THE TEACHER CANNOT DO ABOUT THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASS
  2. The teacher cannot change the positions of the doors and windows.
  3. Can’t control the amount of air that enters the classroom.
  4. Can’t increase the number of pupils’ tables and chairs.

 

  1. WHAT THE TEACHER CAN DO ABOUT THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE CLASS

Seating arrangement is one of the most important activities in which teachers are expected to do for effective teaching and learning. If it is poorly arranged the following will be the effect:

  • It creates obstruction: it is when tall pupils sit in front and the short ones sit at the back etc.
  • Restricting free movement.
  • Promotes inattentiveness. Both the obstructions and restriction to movement can lead to inattentiveness.
  • It affects some pupils physically.

 MANAGING CLASS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING

Oslom (1871), class activity and amount of creativity in a classroom decreases as class size becomes greater. He suggested thirty-six pupils to be the class size, if above that such classes should be divided into stream. In Ghana some class are even above fifty (50) pupils.

CREATING A GOOD SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

THE STRATEGIES OF CREATING A GOOD SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT ARE:

  1. Learn on a group basis: helps to reduce the disadvantages associated with both the ability and the mixed abilities grouping.

Mixed Ability grouping should be done on subject basis

Ability grouping should always precede mixed ability.

  1. Use of class monitors: this should be added to the elections for class prefect, leaders for the sections etc.
  2. Prompt action on deviant behaviour: such deviant behaviours like lateness to class, using abusive language, fighting, stealing etc. should be promptly dealt with in a more humane manner.
  3. Demonstrate superb teaching skills: exhibit good personality, sound subject matter, knowledge and good teaching.

BELOW ARE SOME OF THE GOOD TEACHING SKILLS:

  1. Demonstrate advanced preparation
  2. High level of pupils’ involvement
  3. Provide constant supervision by going round the class.
  4. Monitor whatever is going on.
  5. Mark pupils’ exercises regularly.

WHEN THESE ARE PROPERLY DONE:

  • It helps for the attainment of objective for the gathering.
  • Teaching and learning being complex human activities demand a type of interaction and environment that will be good enough.

For this to be achieved the new teacher expects:

  • A class that is not noisy.
  • Pupils who are obedient and hardworking.
  • A class that will co-operate with him/her in the task of teaching and learning.
  • Pupils whose physiological and psychological needs are adequately provided by parents.
  • Pupils who are punctual and regular to classes.

Below are expectations of the pupils:

  • A teacher who is loving, friendly and caring.
  • Other pupils who are loving and friendly.
  • Other pupils who are supportive and caring.
  • A class where individual contributors and interest are appreciated and recognized.
  • A class where there is no potential treat to self-image.
  • A class where there is freedom to express one’s self or ideas.
  • A class where there is mutual respect for one another.

 

 

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