This unit covered the following sub-topics: 6.1 Meaning of Classroom management 6.2 Purposes of classroom management 6.3 Principles of classroom management 6.4 Management of student behaviour strategies 6.5 Common classroom problems in the classroom 6.6 Management of the learning Environment Wait time




Welcome to Unit 6. This Unit is about Classroom Management


  • Tell why Classroom Management matters
  • Demonstrate knowledge on how to prevent management problems in the classroom situation.
  • Demonstrate effective way of responding to student misbehaviour

Activity 1

  1. What is Classroom Management?

6.1 Meaning of Classroom management

Simply put, classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to ensure that their classroom runs smoothly, without disruptive behavior from students. This boils down to having a structured learning environment with clear rules that promote learning as well as consequences that diminish or eliminate behaviors that get in the way of learning.

Classroom management is also a term teacher use to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly without disruptive behavior from students compromising the delivery of instruction. The term also implies the prevention of disruptive behavior preemptively, as well as effectively responding to it after it happens.

To another, Classroom management refers to the wide variety of skills and techniques that teachers use to keep students organized, orderly, focused, attentive, on task, and academically productive during a class. When classroom-management strategies are executed effectively, teachers minimize the behaviors that impede learning for both individual students and groups of students, while maximizing the behaviors that facilitate or enhance learning. Generally speaking, effective teachers tend to display strong classroom-management skills, while the hallmark of the inexperienced or less effective teacher is a disorderly classroom filled with students who are not working or paying attention.

We sometimes make the mistake of interchanging the terms “behavior management” and “classroom management.” The two terms are related, one might even say intertwined, but they are different.  Classroom  management  means  creating  systems  that  support the kind  of positive behavior across a classroom. Behavior management is made up of strategies and systems that will manage and eliminate difficult behaviours that prevent students from succeeding in an academic environment.

Again, Classroom management refers to all procedures and strategies used by a teacher to maintain discipline in the classroom to ensure a conducive environment that can facilitate student learning. A well-managed classroom improves student learning. The classroom is a congregation of different students with different personalities; thus, teacher needs to know how to effectively manage the class.

Classroom management is crucial in classrooms because it supports the proper execution of curriculum development, developing best teaching practices, and putting them into action. Classroom management can be explained as the actions and directions that teachers use to create a successful learning environment; indeed, having a positive impact on students achieving given learning requirements and goals (Webster, 2020). In an effort to ensure all students receive the best education it would seem beneficial for educator programs to spend more time and effort in ensuring educators and instructors are well versed in classroom management.

Activity 2

  1. Discuss any five (5) purposes of Classroom Management

6.2 Purposes of classroom management

  1. To ensure that classroom teaching run smoothly despite the disruptive behaviour of some students. Running a classroom smoothly and efficiently makes a powerful impact on the students learning achievement. A recent study indicated that effective classroom leadership is second only to teaching in regards to student success (Webster, 2020).
  2. To alert students of what is expected of them. The goal and result of a well-managed classroom is structure. Teachers provide structure through creating and staying on a schedule, planning curriculum and extension activities and exhibiting preparedness. Students model behavior and work after the teacher, so modeling responsibility, pride, appropriate language and high expectations helps students do the same. Classroom structure is maintained through rule-based procedures such as morning routines that focus kids on an academic task when first entering the classroom, center routines that promote moving from one center to the next when cued, getting books out at the beginning of each class and packing bags before dismissal.
  3. To maximize the time for academic learning. Time is a precious commodity for teachers. Most teachers would argue that they never have enough time to reach every student, particularly the ones that are below grade level. Therefore, every second a teacher has with their students should be a meaningful and productive second. Successful teachers establish procedures and expectations that minimize wasteful downtime and maximize engaging learning opportunities. Wasted time does add up. A teacher who loses as little as five minutes of instructional minutes per day due to inefficiencies wastes fifteen hours of opportunity over the course of a 180-day school year. That extra time would likely make a significant difference for every student, but particularly those who are struggling learners.
  1. To minimize the effect of disruptive behaviour shown by students. A goal of classroom management is a sound and rule-based environment that represents a setting where learning occurs. A system of rules and consequences that define and promote tolerance of classmates and teachers through respect and high standards for individual and group behavior results in a safe learning environment that students feel comfortable entering and participating within
  2. To provide a conducive learning environment for students. A good classroom management plan will help you create a favorable learning environment. Student academic achievement is an objective of classroom management. Teachers create student achievement through upholding high expectations by alerting students to the quality of behavior and work that is accepted within the classroom and school. This occurs through ongoing encouragement, positive peer pressure, adherence to rules and modeling.
  3. Effective classroom management is an absolute must. It impacts your ability to be an effective educator and enjoy your job, and it impacts your students’ success as learners. If your classroom is out of control, it won’t matter how passionate you are about your subject or how much you are truly dedicated to children, learning will be negatively impacted.
  4. Classroom management achieves the goal of teachers by providing different types of modalities for kids to gain and apply knowledge. Classrooms that engage students in learning and following procedures offer more opportunities for teachers to implement effective instruction through experiential learning activities and differentiated instruction to students on a one-on-one basis or in small groups. An educator can entrust a well- managed class to follow procedure and directions while she attends to varying student needs and ability levels.

Activity 3

  1. State and describe any three (3) principles of Classroom Management

6.3 Principles of classroom management

Brophy (1983) identified three principles for good classroom management.

  1. Willingness of the teacher to accept responsibility for classroom management.
  2. Long-term, solution-oriented approaches to problems rather than short term responses.
  3. Check to see if symptomatic behaviour is caused by underlying personal problems.

Activity 4

  1. State and explain any five (5) strategies you will use to manage student behaviour in a Science class.

6.4 Management of student behaviour strategies

  1. Proactive planning.

In-depth preparation of interesting and challenging activities to keep Students engaged.

  1. Systematic arrangement of the classroom.

A congested classroom is difficult to manage. Teacher should be able to move freely and reach any student. Sitting plan can be done so that teacher can keep an eye on students.

  1. Use preventive strategies.

Identify precursors to student disruptive behaviours.

  1. Fair treatment.Treat all students fairly. This increases respect for the teacher.
  1. Consistencies in dealing with students. Class and school rules should be reinforced consistently. Maintain authority all year long. You meant it when you started the year, but it’s easy to relax a bit as the year moves along. When you tell kids to stop talking and get back to work but you don’t follow through, you tell them it doesn’t matter that much. This can lead to teachers raising their voices and saying things they regret. You don’t have to be mean; you just have to mean it. So, make a list of rules that are effective and really matter to you and then share them with your students. Post them visibly and refer to them often.
  2. Use humour

Have a good sense of humour. Use jokes to calm situations and ease tension.

  1. Avoid confrontation.

Don’t confront students aggressively. Discipline is best administered in private.

8. Have simple and understandable classroom rules.

Classroom rules should be simple and understandable. Classroom rules should be important for classroom management. Rules should communicate  what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviour in the classroom. Make sure that students know what your rules mean. Just because you’ve stated them, shared them, and posted them, doesn’t mean students know what they mean. Your version of no talking might be different from theirs. Human beings talk for lots of reasons, so keep your expectations appropriate. It might even be okay to joke around a bit as long as a student is staying focused on the task at hand. Some teachers find great success with acting out ways of talking that are effective.

  1. Use sarcasm cautiously. Students may not identify it as sarcasm. Students may be offended and may respond accordingly.
  2. Know the names of students and build relationships. This is hands down the most effective classroom management technique. When a student trusts their teacher, they make more of an effort to follow the rules. When teachers make an effort to get to know each student on a more personal basis, they get more out of their teaching experience as well. Each class should feel more like a family. If you don’t know how to pronounce each child’s name correctly, use sarcasm regularly, and make students feel dumb for asking questions, you need to change those behaviors first.
  3. Celebrate hard work. Show students that you value the work they put into learning. Identify milestones in the work everyone is accomplishing each day. Once a week, choose one particularly hardworking team or student to share their story. Let the class ask them how they accomplished the work. What a valuable lesson students learn when they hear peers talking about what hard work means to them. Students who know their work will be celebrated instead of just their grades will pay more attention and stay focused.

Activity 5

  1. Discuss any five (5) common classroom problems in a Science Lesson at the Basic School.

6.5 Common classroom problems in the classroom

  1. Sleeping in class
  2. Not paying attention.
  3. Laughing unnecessarily
  4. Coming to class late
  5. Gossiping during lessons
  6. Hold distracting conversations
  7. Disapproving groans and comments
  8. Using cell phones during class
  9. Verbal and physical disrespect to the teacher

Activity 6

  1. Mention and discuss any four (4) ways on how you will manage your learners’ learning environment.

6.6 Management of the learning Environment Wait time

Increases wait time after asking a question. This will help a lot of students to think about the question. It also allows introvert students to muster courage to speak. Rowe (1987) found out that more students were willing to answer a question when the wait time was increased from 1.5s to 3-

5s. Let students write down their ideas.

Ask students to write down their responses to the question. Students can be called to read out their response. The responses can be collected when necessary.

  1. Think-pair-share

Give students time to think about the question. Ask students to talk to their neighbouring student and compare ideas, points of agreement and disagreement. Ask students to bring out the pair’s idea on the question. Students can bring out their disagreements.

  1. Multiple hands, multiple voices

Make sure that multiple hands are raised whenever you ask a question. Call different students to answer questions. You may tell the students that you want more than one hand up when you ask a question. Students may be asked to rehearse with their colleagues what they will say if they are called.

  1. Random calling of students

Establish the culture in the classroom that any student can be called on at any time to answer a question. Learn students’ names.

  1. Whip around

Let every student know that you would like to hear their opinions. Teacher listen to every student’s opinion after asking a question. If a student says his ideas have been shared, let him share his in his own words. In a large class, you can ask only students on a row to share their ideas to a question. Rotate the rows during the course of the lesson. Do not judge wrong responses. If you want more students to participate in the lesson, then indicate to students that you would like to hear from a number of them and then sort out which responses are accurate. In such situations, acknowledge responses in neutral tone. “Thanks for sharing your idea” can be used to acknowledge students’ responses.

  1. Use praise with caution

Be careful of the words you use to acknowledge students’ responses. Words like “fabulous”, “exactly”, “perfect” connote finality and this will prevent other students from speaking up.

  1. Establish classroom rules

Indicate the standard acceptable behaviours in the classroom. No intimidation from colleagues. Indicate that all ideas are welcomed.



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